Last month, a case of ZIKA was biologically confirmed in Martinique. This Friday, January 8, the Committee of experts on emerging infectious diseases found that the epidemiological situation of the Zika in Martinique corresponds to level 2 of the arbovirus Psage: fledgling indigenous transmission. This level precedes phase epidemic (level 3). The most affected areas are the centre of Martinique (agglomeration foyalaise and corresponding Atlantic seaboard), North Caribbean and some municipalities in the South. It is the State of alert in Brazil, the Zika virus, less known that cousins chikungunya and dengue fever - transmitted them also by the Tiger mosquito - wreaks havoc in infants for several months.
That is what the Zika?
The zika is an infectious disease caused by an arbovirus: zika virus. This virus from family Flaviridae (flavivirus genus) was isolated for the first time in 1947 in a Rhesus Monkey forest Zika (Uganda). There are two distinct viral lineages (African and Asian) of this close virus from virus dengue, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile. The diagnosis of zika is done by detection of viral RNA (test by blood test called PCR) because the risk of false positive result is important with other tests (serology).
Modes of transmission
Transmission occurs from person to person through infected mosquitoes of the Aedes genus.
The infection is asymptomatic (infection without any symptoms) in 50 to 75% of the cases. In people who develop symptoms after an incubation period of 3 to 12 days a moderate fever (< 38.5 ° C) appears, often accompanied by a rash erythematous maculopapular (small red spots on the skin). May also occur a conjunctival hyperemia (red eyes), arthralgia (joint pain) or myalgia (muscle pain), and edema of the hands and/or feet.
Evolution is often favorable, without ill effects, but neurological complications of type Guillain-Barre syndrome have been observed during the recent outbreak of Polynesia French (paralysis which are transient but whose gravity may require support in ICU).
The first epidemic was described in 2007 in Yap (Micronesia), and then in October 2013 virus was responsible for an epidemic in French Polynesia French. In 7 months, estimated that 30,000 people would have consulted for this reason on the Polynesian territory.
The virus has spread in the Pacific, in 2014 and 2015, reaching New Zealand, New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, Solomon and Vanuatu.
In Brazil, May 16, 2015, the Ministry of Health confirmed the Zika virus circulation in the country.
It could emerge in areas where competent vectors are present, the French territories of America are therefore particularly vigilant.
There is currently no vaccine or preventive treatment against infection of the zika.
Therefore, individual prevention based on the means of protection against mosquito bites (repellent sprays or creams, coils, electrical distributors, clothes long, nets).
Collective prevention is based on vector.